Repairing tears in Caudron's (CA-50) fabric covering

Maanantai 30.12.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

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Caudron C.59. Photo: Wikipedia.

The Caudron C.59 (CA-59) airplane, which is under restoration at the Tuesday Club, has several holes and tears in its fabric covering. The damage has happened during the 90 years of storage. All damages in the fabric covering will be patched using fabric patches, following original procedures.

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There are several methods to repair the tears on the fabric covering. A thin strip of plywood can be glued under the fabric to support the tear and the edges of the tear are glued on this supporting piece of wood. A covering fabric patch is placed on top. If the damage covers a large area on the fabric covering, the damaged material can be removed and replaced with new fabric. This method can be used e.g. between wing ribs. In this blog we concentrate on how the tears and holes on Caudron’s fabric were repaired by sewing and using fabric patches on top of the stitched area.

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First the edges of the tear will have to be stitched against each other, or at least as close to each other as possible, by tightening the stitching thread. Then a covering fabric patch is glued on the tear. Small punctured holes can be covered with a patch without stitching first. The edges of the tear are stitched using a curved upholstery needle and thin linen thread.

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Before the edges of the tear were stitched, a narrow strip of linen was glued under the edges to support the frayed covering fabric. The old fabric is so thin that it would be frayed even more when the edges are pulled together with the stitching thread. When the stitching progressed, the edges of the tear were pulled closer to one another by tightening the thread. Usually the original covering fabric has shrunk during the years and it is impossible to connect the edges of the tear.

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Then and now.

After the stitching, the fabric in the repair area remains somewhat loose and wrinkled, in spite of tightening the stitching thread. Additional tightening can be done with a heat blower. The heat from the blower melted the old lacquered surface of the 1920s’ covering fabric and it became a little bit loose. When the lacquer cooled down, it shrunk, and tightened also the stitched area. Heat treatment is a useful method to tighten the stitched area before gluing a fabric patch on the damaged area. The fabric patches were glued on the stitched areas and punctured holes using traditional nitrocellulose lacquer. On Caudron’s patches Tikkurila Oy Dicco lacquer was used.

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Suitable patch pieces were cut from cotton fabric. The edges of each patch were frayed manually before gluing so that the patch would fasten tightly on the repaired area. The fraying was done by unravelling the warp threads along 3-5 mm around the patch edges. This method was used already in the 1920s’, the edges on the strengthening fabric strips on the Caudron’s wing ribs have been unravelled in this manner. Nowadays special scissors are used when cutting the saw-toothed edges of a fabric patch or a fabric strip before gluing.

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The damaged area on the original fabric was surrounded with protective tape, which was placed around the area before gluing the patch. It is necessary to limit the work area and to keep the gluing lacquer in the patching area, preventing it from seeping outside the area. The work area was buffed rough before gluing. The buffed dust and the grease on the fabric surface was removed using water-Sinol solution. Then nitrocellulose lacquer was spread on the work area and on the fabric patch, which was placed on a piece of cardboard. The patch was lacquered soaking wet.

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It took about five minutes before the lacquer became drier and gluey. The fabric patch was carefully placed on the stitched work area. Another layer of lacquer was applied, and the brush was used to straighten the frayed edges of the patch. After about ten minutes the protecting tapes were removed, and the patching was ready.

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The Tuesday Club team noticed that leaving the protecting tape on the work area for a longer time will cause problems. A “gentle type” of painter’s tape was used but the problem could be seen. The tape may stick too tightly on the original painted fabric and when the tape is unfastened, some original paint will peel off with the tape.

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About two dozen holes and tears on Caudron’s port lower wing and tailplane and fin have been repaired, using the method described above. About a dozen holes still need patching. And there is more work ahead when the tears and holes on the starboard lower wing and both upper wings are repaired.

Photos: Lassi Karivalo

Translation: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Repairing Caudron C.59 front cockpit's windscreen

Perjantai 6.12.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

On Friday, October 11th some of the Caudron’s (CA-50) fuselage parts were dismantled in Vesivehmaa and brought to the Tuesday Club’s workspace. These items included the damaged aluminium frame of the front cockpit’s windscreen. The windscreen had been fastened on the plywood covering of the fuselage with seven bolts. The bolt nuts were easy to unfasten, but it was a challenge to unfasten the windscreen frame from the plywood, because the bolts were covered with a heavy layer of rust. A screwdriver was used as a lever between the windscreen frame and the plywood covering and finally the rusty bolts could be manoeuvred through the plywood.

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The windscreen frame, originally made from thin aluminium sheet, had been badly bent and partly damaged. However, it can be straightened and repaired, and it can be installed back on the Caudron’s fuselage. There were fragments of the original windscreen still attached to the frame. The Tuesday Club team concluded that the windscreen had been made of celluloid, typically used in 1920’s airplanes. The celluloid window has been fastened with rivets between the windscreen frame and the aluminium profiles around the window.

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The repair work was started by unfastening the four aluminium profiles that surrounded the window. All rivets that had connected the windscreen frame and the surrounding profiles were unfastened using a spike. The original windscreen celluloid fragments were also removed. The bent windscreen frame was carefully hammered into its original shape. The aluminium profiles were also straightened. Then the new windscreen could be made.

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The original windscreen windows had been made of 1 mm thick celluloid plate. Such material isn’t available anymore, so a modern polycarbonate plate in the corresponding thickness was used.

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First a thin flexible piece of plywood was placed on the windscreen frame and the window shape was drawn on it. The pattern was used to cut the new window from the polycarbonate plate. The new window was cut a couple of centimetres larger than the pattern, in order to have enough material to shape the plate into the correct measurements. The polycarbonate plate was fitted into the windscreen frame, shaping it gradually. When the new window fitted properly between the frame and the surrounding profiles, preparations for the riveting were started.

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The polycarbonate window was fastened between the frame and the surrounding profiles using strong clamps. Then the holes for the rivets were drilled through the plate, positioning them at the original rivet holes in the windscreen frame. When each hole had been drilled, a cleko-fastener was placed in it, using pliers. The cleko-fasterers were used to ensure that the window stayed in place and the rivet holes were in the correct positions. Hole by hole, the edge of the windscreen was fastened with clekos.

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The polycarbonate window was riveted onto the frame, hole by hole, removing each cleko-fastener and putting a 1,5 mm long aluminium rivet into each hole. A compressed air hammer and a traditional hammer were used to hammer the rivets into place. When the riveting was ready, the Caudron C.59’s front cockpit window was ready. A protecting film still covers the window on both sides, the films will be removed when the windscreen has been installed into its place on the Caudron’s fuselage. The paint on the windscreen frame is worn and damaged, but the decisions about the surfacing of the frame will be made later.

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The windscreen of the rear cockpit has been lost. At first the Tuesday Club team thought that the rear cockpit’s windscreen could be built using the front cockpit’s windscreen as a model. When the team studied the surface and the marks of the Caudron’s fuselage in Vesivehmaa more closely, it was discovered that obviously the rear windscreen had been significantly different from the one in front. Therefore it was decided that the rear cockpit’s windscreen won’t be made before the Caudron’s fuselage is moved from Vesivehmaa into the restoration space at the Finnish Aviation Museum. This will probably take place in 2021.

Photos: Lassi Karivalo.

Translation: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Caudron C.59's horizontal stabilizer is straightened

Tiistai 19.11.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

During the 90 years of storage, the Caudron’s horizontal stabilizer has bent badly and it is also otherwise in such poor condition that it had to be dismantled for the restoration work. During the dismantling it became clear that the reason for the bending was the batten on the leading edge. The batten on the trailing edge was also slightly bent. Both battens had to be straightened before re-installing the stabilizer parts and the fabric covering. The team decided to try and straighten the battens by making them thoroughly wet and then fastening them on a level table top to dry and straighten.

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Some flexible ventilation duct was found in the storage of the Finnish Aviation Museum and this duct was used to make a container for soaking the leading and trailing edge battens. A four meters long piece of duct was needed for the battens which are nearly three meters long. When the battens had been placed inside the duct, the ends of the duct were bent upwards and the duct “tub” was filled with water. The team estimated that it would take about a week for the battens to get thoroughly soaked when they were submerged in water.

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The battens were taken out from their bath after a week, and it seemed that both battens had already straightened by themselves. Obviously wood returns to its original shape when it is thoroughly soaked, in this case to the shape which had been made for the horizontal stabilizer. However, the leading edge and trailing edge battens were fastened on a heavy table surface using clamps. There the battens could dry and hopefully regain their correct shape.

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After another week the clamps were unfastened, and the team found out that the battens were dry and almost straight. The thinner trailing edge batten was completely dry but the leading edge batten felt damp and it was still a little bent. The team re-fastened the leading edge batten on the table with the damp side upwards.

In the following week the batten was unfastened and the whole horizontal stablizer frame (leading and trailing edge battens and the end battens) was assembled and placed on the table. The team noticed that the leading edge batten was still slightly bent and the whole frame rose 3 cm up from the table top at its starboard rear corner instead of being flat against the table top.

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The team decided to soak the leading and trailing edge battens for another week. Also the end battens were placed in the tub because they were a couple of centimeters bent inwards. After a week the battens were taken from the tub and this time they were fastened on the table as a frame. In the assembly work the leading edge batten was pushed straight using wedges. The aim was that when the leading edge batten dries when assembled in the frame, it would not bend back into its previous shape.

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Another week went by and the frame was unfastened. The team noticed that again the frame was not flat but the rear corner of the frame rose slightly from the table top. The leading edge batten was still damp on the side which had been against the table. Therefore the leading edge batten was fastened on the table once more and left to dry for two weeks.

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After two weeks the horizontal stablizer’s leading edge batten was unfastened and the trailing edge batten and the end battens were assembled. The team was delighted to see that the frame rested flat on the table – the leading edge batten wasn’t bent any more. Now the repaired ribs could be preliminarily tested between the leading and trailing edge battens. The Tuesday Club team had worked hard to return the battens to their original shape and succeeded.

Photos: Lassi Karivalo

Translation: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Parts of Caudron C.59 were transported from Vesivehmaa

Maanantai 4.11.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

The Tuesday Club has been working on the Caudron c.59’s (CA-50) horizontal stabilizer, both elevators, the wing struts and one lower wing. As there is no major work to be done on these parts of the plane, the team decided to go and fetch some more parts of the Caudron’s fuselage, which is still in the Päijänne-Tavastia Aviation Museum at Vesivehmaa. The Vesivehmaa museum was visited by about ten Tuesday Club members.

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As soon as the team arrived in Vesivehmaa, the work was started and the vertical stabilizer, rudder and the bracing wires were unfastened and carried into the car in no time. All the parts fitted well into the spacious boot of the Skoda Octavia.

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It took much longer to dismantle the wing struts which were on top of the front fuselage. Each strut bracing had rusted badly. CRC was used to unfasten the rusty bolts and fortunately the team managed to unfasten without damages all the bolts, three on each strut. Also the bracing wires fastened on the bracings were taken along. Furthermore, the aluminum sheet cowling on the engine mounting, the front cockpit seat and the badly damaged windscreen frame were dismantled to be taken to the Tuesday Club work space.

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Left photo: Ari Aho.

The engine cowling came off easily, as did the front cockpit seat, fastened on the frame with four bolts. More effort was needed to unfasten the damaged front windscreen frame. The frame had been fastened through the plywood covering using eight bolts, which had rusted badly. The nuts below the plywood covering were easy to unfasten, but to maneuver the rusty bolts through the plywood and the frame was challenging. The frame is very bent and there are still some remains of the original celluloid plexiglass on it.

There are still several other pieced to be dismantled from the Caudron’s cockpit, e.g. the rear cockpit seat, the control column and the rudder pedals, but more time is needed to do all this.

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While the rest of the team was working on the Caudron, a couple of Tuesday Club members installed the securing pins on the bolts of the I.V.L.K.1 Kurki landing gear and wing struts. The Kurki restoration work has been completed and the plane was returned to the Vesivehmaa hall in June.

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The following parts of the Caudron C.59 (CA-59) were dismantled and transported from Vesivehmaa to the Tuesday Club hall:

  • the tailfin
  • the rudder
  • bracing wires of the tailfin
  • all four wing struts of the upper wing which were fastened on the front fuselage
  • bracing wires on the wing struts
  • front cockpit seat
  • bent frame of the front cockpit windscreen
  • engine cowling

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When the team returned to the Aviation Museum in Vantaa, all items were carefully labelled and the smaller parts (such as the nuts and bolts of the wing struts) were stored in plastic bags to wait for cleaning.

Photos: Lassi Karivalo except one separately credited

Translation: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Caudron?s wing struts are cleaned

Perjantai 30.8.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

Caudron’s eight wing struts were brought from Päijänne-Tavastia Aviation Museum in Vesivehmaa to the Tuesday Club to be restored. The struts are made of wood and have a lacquered surface. The front struts are slightly heavier than the rear ones. All struts are in surprisingly good condition.

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Each strut has a fabric covering at the ends, covering about 10 cm and painted using black lacquer. There are also metal insets at the ends, with hinged metal bayonets for fastening the struts on the wings. The struts are fastened by pushing the metal bayonets through the wings and locking the bars into place using castle nuts on the other side of the wing.

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The restoration of the wing struts was started by cleaning the lacquered wooden surfaces and black end parts using mild dishwashing liquid. The work was finalized by wiping the surfaces with cloths dipped in clean water.

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The metal insets and fastening bayonets were cleaned of dirt and rust. The hinged bayonets were unfastened to make cleaning easier.

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The screw thread at the ends of the bayonets were in poor condition because of rust. The diameter of the bayonet and the thread pitch were measured, the bayonet is 8 mm in diameter and the pitch is 1,5. The thread was opened using a suitable thread cutter from the cutter die.

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There is still some work ahead before all 16 strut fastener bayonets have been cleaned. One of the original castle nuts is available, the other 15 will have to be bought.

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A historical photo from the Finnish Aviation Museum's photo archive shows what kind of aircraft Caudron C.59 is.

Other photos: Lassi Karivalo.

Translation from Finnish to English: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Caudron?s horizontal stabilizer is taken apart

Tiistai 27.8.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

Before the summer break the Tuesday Club team managed to dismantle the fabric covering on the horizontal stabilizer of the Caudron C.59. (CA-59), which was used by the Air Force in the late 1920s. Also a few ribs were unfastened, too. The horizontal stabilizer has been badly bent, and it will have to be dismantled into parts to straighten it. The wooden edge of the stabilizer is in the worst condition and repairing it won’t be easy.

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When the Club’s autumn season started on August 13th, the work continued by unfastening the ribs of the horizontal stabilizer. There are 11 ribs, three wooden ones and eight plywood ribs with wooden battens around the edges. The edge battens are in good condition, but the plywood parts are badly rotten. The ribs were numbered before they were unfastened.

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There was busy activity around the work table when the team started to unfasten the ribs. It was hard work because the ends of the wooden battens on the upper and lower edges of the ribs had been fastened on the wooden leading and trailing edges with a fishtail joint, secured with screws.

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The screws at the ends of the battens couldn’t be unfastened with a screwdriver. The screwdriver had to be used as a lever when pulling the screws out with pliers. When all the battens had been dismantled, they were bundled together with the broken plywood ribs, using painter’s tape. They will have to wait for further activities.

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The wooden ribs were dismantled after the plywood ones. The team noticed that no glue had been used when building the Caudron’s horizontal stabilizer. All joints are either fishtail joints or the joints have been secured with bolts, screws or nails.

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When the ribs had been dismantled, the fasteners for the stabilizer’s bracing wires on the leading and trailing edges had to be removed. The bracing wires and fasteners and their bolts were bundled together for further activities.

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A historical photo from the Finnish Aviation Museum's photo archive shows what kind of aircraft Caudron C.59 is.

Other photos: Lassi Karivalo.

Translation from Finnish to English: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Preliminary preparations for repair of the Caudron C.59?s horizontal stabilizer and elevators

Torstai 9.5.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

The Caudron c.59 (CA-50) airplane’s lower wings, horizontal stabilizer and elevators have been waiting at the Finnish Aviation Museum for the repair work to begin. The restoration of VL Myrsky, continuing for a few more years, and the ongoing repair of helicopter SM-1/Mi-1 rotor blades are still occupying the restoration space, so there is not yet space for the Caudron. However, the preparations for the repair of Caudron’s stabilizer and elevators have been started in another space of the museum.

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Before starting the actual repair of Caudron’s wings and tail, a condition assessment was made. Based on the results of the assessment, the principles for the repair work will be decided. The plane will be restored, based on the principles of repairing conservation. This means that the damages will be repaired but everything worth saving will be saved in its original but cleaned appearance.

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The condition assessment of the horizontal stabilizer and elevators, still in one piece, took place in late April. The fabric covering of the horizontal stabilizer is in very poor condition. There are several holes and damaged areas in the covering and the fabric has frayed very thin and it breaks like thin paper when it is touched. The fabric covering has almost disappeared on the wooden leading edge of the horizontal stablilizer. It is almost certain that none of the original fabric covering on the horizontal stabilizer can be saved. The covering will have to be dismantled and replaced.

The Tuesday Club team decided to find out how the original covering of the stabilizer has been installed. The original covering principle can be seen clearly through the holes in the rotten fabric. A strip of fabric has been fastened along the ribs of the stabilizer, fastened with another strip of fabric around the ribs. The covering fabric has been sewn onto these strips. Then the covering fabric has been tightened using shrinking dope and painted.

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The wooden structure of the horizontal stabilizer has bent crooked during the years, although there are steel wire stiffeners inside. The wooden frame will have to be straightened before the covering work. The wooden frame seems to be undamaged, but the real condition will be discovered when the fabric covering has been dismantled. It is possible that rotten wood will be found under the covering.

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The fabric covering on the elevators is in better condition, but fragile. Some of the original covering may be saved, but whether that is possible or not, will be seen later. The covering on the elevators has been fastenede in a similar way as on the horizontal stabilizer and the wooden frame seems intact. There is no wooden batten on the trailing edge of the elevators (and not on the wings, either). The trailing edge looks like a bat’s wing, as in the fabric-covered airplanes built in the 1920’s.

Unfastening the horizontal stabilizer and elevators

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The horizontal stabilizer and the elevators are fastened to each other using ten metal hinges. The hinge roots have been embedded in the notches in the stablizer’s trailing edge and the elevators’ leading edge. The hinges have been locked in place using bolts penetrating the stablizer’s trailing edge and the elevators’ leading edge.

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The hinge bolts were removed on both sides of the horizontal stabilizer. The nuts on the bolts opened easily although they were rusted, which was quite a surprise as the nuts and bolts have been in place for more than 90 years! When all hinge bolts had been removed, the elevators were pulled away from their hinges. Both elevators could be unfastened easily.

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The team decided to unfasten the hinges, still fastened on the trailing edge of the stabilizer, so that they could be cleaned. This would also make the next work phases easier. The bolt of each hinge was unfastened, and the hinges could be pulled out, one by one, from their notches. The hinges were numbered so that it will be easier to install them back into their original places. The last phase was to unfasten the brackets for the upper and lower supporting wires, which are located on the stabilizer’s trailing edge on the third rib.

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Caudron C.59’s (CA-50) horizontal stabilizer and elevators are now ready for the actual restoration work to begin.

Photos: Lassi Karivalo

Translation from Finnish to English: Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Caudron C.59 parts were transported from Vesivehmaa to Vantaa

Sunnuntai 17.3.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

The Caudron C.59 (CA-50) will be the next restoration project for the Tuesday Club. The two lower wings, horizontal stabilizer, elevator and wing struts were transported from Päijänne-Tavastia Aviation Museum at Vesivehmaa to the Finnish Aviation Museum in Vantaa. The Caudron has been stored in parts at Vesivehmaa and it is included in the airplane catalogue of the War Museum.

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Photo: Hannu Iivarinen

The Caudron has been used by the Finnish Air Force in 1923-1929 as a training plane. The parts of the Caudron were transported by the Finnish Defence Forces and the actual transport task was a part of the draftees’ training. The two fabric-covered wings have been stored in the sea container next to the museum hall. The horizontal stabilizer, elevator and the wing struts have been in the museum hall. The main fuselage of the plane remained in the museum hall and it will be transported later to be restored.

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Photos: Hannu Iivarinen

A team of Finnish Aviation Museum staff and Tuesday Club members left Vantaa very early in the morning. Their task was to pack and load the Caudron’s parts into the Defence Forces’ truck. The team had a collection of wing supports, cushions and cargo straps which would be needed in the packing.

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Photo: Matias Laitinen

The weather was cold and snowy, so the team was a little bit doubtful whether the doors and locks could be opened because of the arctic conditions. However, at Vesivehmaa snow had been cleared and the doors of the hall and the container were accessible. However, some effort was needed before the lock of the container was open.

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Photos: Matias Laitinen

When the Defence Forces’ truck arrived from Tikkakoski, the loading of Caudron’s parts could be started. First the two lower wings were moved from the sea container and then the elevator with horizontal stabilizers, and finally the wing struts. The parts were placed on the wing supports and cushions and secured with cargo straps on the fastening points in the cargo space. The team wanted to make sure that all the parts were secured so that no damage could happen during the transport. When everything was ready the team had a coffee break before setting on the road.

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Photos: Jorma Laakso & Matias Laitinen

The truck arrived at the Finnish Aviation Museum soon after noon. The cargo straps were unfastened and the Caudron parts were moved into the Museum, but not yet into the restoration space.

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Photo: Matias Laitinen

It will take a while before the Tuesday Club team and the Museum’s staff will start the restoration work of the wings, elevator and vertical stabilizer and the wing struts. Before that the Caudron’s parts brought from Vesivehmaa will go through a thorough condition assessment. Based on the results of the assessments the restoration methods will be chosen.

Traslated from Finnish to English by Erja Reinikainen.

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50

Caudron C.59 will be next project for Tuesday Club

Torstai 24.1.2019 - Member of Tuesday Club

Suomeksi

It has been agreed with the Finnish Aviation Museum that the following project for the Aviation Museum Association’s Tuesday Club will be the Caudron C.59. At the  moment the airplane is in storage at the Päijänne-Tavastia Aviation Museum in Vesivehmaa. The fabric-covered Caudron C.59 (CA-50) is in poor condition, having been in storage for more than 90 years. Its restoration work is estimated to take a couple of years.

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Photo: Wikipedia

One of the main work items is to repair the damages on the covering of Caudron’s wings, rudder and horizontal stabilizers. One wing has only the supporting frame structure which is so bent that the wing will have to be straightened and covered with new material. The fuselage covering is also badly damaged. The cockpit, engine space and landing gear will need thorough repair and maintenance. In the near future it will be decided in which order the parts of the Caudron C.59 are brought to the Tuesday Club for restoration. The Finnish Air Force Museum has an 8-cylinder V-engine Hispano Suiza 8 Ab, which has been used in Caudrons and other planes. This would be a good addition to the plane under restoration.

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The Tuesday Club is prepared to start working on the Caudron C.59 when the surfaces of the Junkers 50 A Junior have been cleaned and the plane moved into the II hall of the Finnish Aviation Museum. The rotor blades of the Aviation Museum’s helicopter SM-1 (Mi-1) will also be repaired first. It may be possible to begin the restoration of the Caudron while the rotor blades are still under repair. Some of Caudron’s parts will be transported from Vesivehmaa to the Tuesday Club before the end of February.

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The Caudron C.59 was used for the advanced training of pilots and 3 planes were bought in 1923 from France for the Finnish Air Force. Two of the planes were destroyed in a crash. The Caudron C.59 which is at Vesivehmaa has the identification number CA-50. It did its last flight on October 1st 1929 and was put into storage.

The Caudron C.59 resembles the Caudron C.60, used by the Finnish Air Force (it had 64 Caudron C.60’s). Due to the Hispano Suiza 8 Ab V-engine the front fuselage of the Caudron C.59 is slightly narrower than the thick nose of the Caudron C.60 with its rotating Clerget 9 star engine. Most likely the Caudron C.59 CA-50 in Finland is the only remaining individual of this plane type in the world. The Caudron C.60 (CA-84), restored by the Tuesday Club, is on display in the Finnish Aviation Museum.

Photos: Lassi Karivalo except when separately otherwise mentioned

Translation: Erja Reinikainen

Kommentoi kirjoitusta. Avainsanat: aviation history, restoring, old aircraft, Caudron C.59, CA-50